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A. Seiyama, J. Seki, H. C. Tanabe, I. Sase, A. Takatsuki, S. Miyauchi, H. Eda, S. Hayashi, T. Imaruoka, T. Iwakura, T. Yanagida. Circulatory basis of fMRI signals: relationship between changes in the hemodynamic parameters and BOLD signal intensity. NeuroImage, 21(4):1204-1214, 2004.


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Blood oxygenation level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-fMRI) is widely used as a tool for functional brain mapping. During brain activation, increases in the regional blood flow lead to an increase in blood oxygenation and a decrease in paramagnetic deoxygenated hemoglobin (deoxy-Hb), causing an increase in the MR signal intensity at the site of brain activation. However, not a few studies using fMRI have failed to detect activation of areas that ought to have been activated. We assigned BOLD-positive (an increase in the signal intensity), BOLD-negative (a decrease in the signal intensity), and BOLD-silent (no change) brain activation to respective circulatory conditions through a description of fMRI signals as a function of the concentration of oxygenated Hb (oxy-Hb) and deoxy-Hb obtained with near-infrared optical imaging (NIOI). Using this model, we explain the sensory motor paradox in terms of BOLD-positive, BOLD-negative, and BOLD-silent brain activation


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A. Seiyama
J. Seki
H. C. Tanabe
I. Sase
A. Takatsuki
S. Miyauchi
H. Eda
S. Hayashi
T. Imaruoka
T. Iwakura
T. Yanagida

BibTex Reference

   Author = {Seiyama, A. and Seki, J. and Tanabe, H. C. and Sase, I. and Takatsuki, A. and Miyauchi, S. and Eda, H. and Hayashi, S. and Imaruoka, T. and Iwakura, T. and Yanagida, T.},
   Title = {Circulatory basis of f{MRI} signals: relationship between changes in the hemodynamic parameters and {BOLD} signal intensity},
   Journal = {NeuroImage},
   Volume = {21},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {1204--1214},
   Year = {2004}

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