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P. A. Bandettini, E. C. Wong. A hypercapnia-based normalization method for improved spatial localization of human brain activation with fMRI. NMR Biomed, 10(4):197-203, 1997.


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An issue in blood oxygenation level dependent contrast-based functional MRI is the accurate interpretation of the activation-induced signal changes. Hemodynamic factors other than activation-induced changes in blood oxygenation are known to contribute to the signal change magnitudes and dynamics, and therefore need to be accounted for or removed. In this paper, a general method for removal of effects other than activation-induced blood oxygenation changes from fMRI brain activation maps by the use of hypercapnic stress normalization is introduced. First, the effects of resting blood volume distribution across voxels on activation-induced BOLD-based fMRI signal changes are shown to be significant. Second, the effects of hypercapnia and hypoxia on resting and activation-induced signal changes are demonstrated. These results suggest that global hemodynamic stresses may be useful for non-invasive mapping of blood volume. Third, the normalization technique is demonstrated


[ Brain/*anatomy & histology/blood supply/*physiology ] [ Brain mapping/*methods ] [ Carbon dioxide/*blood ] [ Humans ] [ Image processing ] [ Computer-assisted/methods ] [ Magnetic resonance imaging/*methods ] [ Oxygen/blood ]


P. A. Bandettini
E. C. Wong

BibTex Reference

   Author = {Bandettini, P. A. and Wong, E. C.},
   Title = {A hypercapnia-based normalization method for improved spatial localization of human brain activation with f{MRI}},
   Journal = {NMR Biomed},
   Volume = {10},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {197--203},
   Year = {1997}

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