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K. Anami, T. Mori, F. Tanaka, Y. Kawagoe, J. Okamoto, M. Yarita, T. Ohnishi, M. Yumoto, H. Matsuda, O. Saitoh. Stepping stone sampling for retrieving artifact-free electroencephalogram during functional magnetic resonance imaging. NeuroImage, 19(2):281-295, 2003.


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Ballistocardiogram and imaging artifacts cause major interference with simultaneous electroencephalogram (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) recording. In particular, the large amplitude of the imaging artifact precludes easy retrieval of EEG signals during fMRI scanning. Recording with 20,000-Hz digitization rate combined with 3000-Hz low-pass filter revealed the real waveform of the imaging artifact, in which it was elucidated that each artifact peak precisely corresponded to each gradient component and actually had differential waveforms of the original gradient pulses. Based on this finding, to retrieve EEG signal during fMRI acquisition, a blip-type echo planar sequence was modified so that EEG sampling might be performed at every 1000 micros (digitization rate 1000 Hz) exclusively in the period in which the artifact resided around the baseline level. This method, called "stepping stone sampling," substantially attenuated the amplitude of the imaging artifact. The remnant of the artifact was subtracted from the averaged artifact waveform. In human studies, alpha activity was successfully retrieved by inspection, and its attenuation/augmentation was observed during eyes open/closed periods. Fast Fourier transform analysis further revealed that even from DC up to 120 Hz, retrieved EEG data during scanning had very similar power distributions to the data retrieved during no scanning, implying the availability of the high-frequency band of the retrieved EEG signals, including even the gamma band


[ Adult ] [ Alpha rhythm ] [ *artifacts ] [ Ballistocardiography/methods ] [ Brain mapping/methods ] [ Cerebral cortex/*physiology ] [ Echo-planar imaging/methods ] [ Electroencephalography/*methods ] [ Female ] [ Fourier analysis ] [ Human ] [ Image interpretation ] [ Computer-assisted/*methods ] [ Magnetic resonance imaging/*methods ] [ Male ] [ Phantoms ] [ Imaging ] [ Reference values ] [ Support ] [ Non-u.s. gov't ]


K. Anami
T. Mori
F. Tanaka
Y. Kawagoe
J. Okamoto
M. Yarita
T. Ohnishi
M. Yumoto
H. Matsuda
O. Saitoh

BibTex Reference

   Author = {Anami, K. and Mori, T. and Tanaka, F. and Kawagoe, Y. and Okamoto, J. and Yarita, M. and Ohnishi, T. and Yumoto, M. and Matsuda, H. and Saitoh, O.},
   Title = {Stepping stone sampling for retrieving artifact-free electroencephalogram during functional magnetic resonance imaging},
   Journal = {NeuroImage},
   Volume = {19},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {281--295},
   Year = {2003}

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